Timeline of the History of Behavior Analysis

So, what was happening? This timeline tells the story of important events in the development of behavior analysis from its beginnings with B. F. Skinner's work in the early 1930s down to the present. Here you can find the people, ideas, and resources that have contributed to the growth of the science of behavior and its applications.

Sponsored by: Aubrey Daniels International

1913

Resources
1913
Watson writes the classic, "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It." First published in Psychological Review, Vol 20(2), Mar 1913, 158-177.  

1917

People
1917
Kantor receives his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Chicago.

1924

Resources
1924
Kantor (1888-1984) publishes Principles of Psychology (Vol. I), the first of twenty books that he will publish on psychology, language, history, and culture over the next 60 years. 

1929

People
1929
Skinner starts graduate study in psychology at Harvard University.

1932

Experimental Analysis of Behavior
1932
Skinner first describes in print his operant conditioning chamber.

1938

People
1938
Keller accepts a faculty position at Columbia University, where he and Nat Schoenfeld team up to create an exceptional program in behavior analysis at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

1943

Experimental Analysis of Behavior
1943

1945

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1945
Skinner publishes “On the Operational Analysis of Psychological Terms,” Psychological Review.

1947

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1947
Skinner delivers the William James Lectures at Harvard on the topic of verbal behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis
1947
Keller Breeland and Marian Breeland (later Bailey) begin a school for animal trainers that evolves into Animal Behavior Enterprises of Hot Springs Arkansas, the first behaviorally based (on positive reinforcement) “animals-as-performers” business.

1948

Resources
1948
First Conference on the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, held at Indiana University. 

1949

Applied Behavior Analysis
1949
Fuller publishes the first demonstration of operant conditioning with a person who is developmentally delayed (“Operant Conditioning of a Human Vegetative Organism,” published in the American Journal of Psychology). Fuller, is, as far as we know, the first report of a deliberate application of the operant conditioning technique to a clinical situation. In illustrating the method to vegetative idiot Fuller points up the potential for treating all human organisms" (Ullman & Krasner, Case Studies in Behavior Modification, 1965, p. 335)

1950

Resources
1950
Keller & Schoenfeld publish the first textbook with a behavior-analytic focus, Principles of Psychology
People
1950
Ferster joins Skinner as a post-doctoral fellow in the Harvard pigeon lab.

1953

Experimental Analysis of Behavior
1953
Sidman publishes “Two Temporal Parameters of the Maintenance of Avoidance Behavior by the White Rat” in the Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology.
Applied Behavior Analysis
1953
Ogden  Lindsley, with B. F. Skinner, starts the first laboratory dedicated to the study of human operant behavior, the Behavior Research Laboratory, at the Harvard University Medical School and Metropolitan State Hospital. There he undertook pioneering research on the operant behavior of people diagnosed with schizophrenia.  

1958

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1958
Noam Chomsky publishes his critical and highly influential review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.
Resources
1958
The Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior is founded, with C. B. Ferster as its first Editor.  
People
1958
Azrin is hired as director of treatment development at Anna, Illinois State Hospital, where he creates the Behavior Research Lab.

1959

Applied Behavior Analysis
1959
Brady sets up a program to train rhesus monkeys Abel and Baker to perform an operant task (Sidman avoidance) in space in a capsule attached to a Saturn missile, a precursor to manned space flight by U. S. Astronauts.

1960

Resources
1960
Sidman publishes Tactics of Scientific Research, giving behavior analysis its methodological Bible.
Resources
1960
In the 1960s Dick Malott founds Behaviordelia, a publishing company that produced many of the early text books that attracted a new generation of students to behavior analysis. Behaviordelia also produced bumper stickers, like the one associated with this timeline, which spread the message of behaviorism. 

1961

Resources
1961
James G. Holland and B. F. Skinner publish the first programmed textbook, The Analysis of Behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis
1961
Lovaas begins his pioneering work at UCLA on the behavioral treatment of autism.
Resources
1961
Fred Keller goes to Brazil on a Fulbright grant, and is so doing sets into play the development of behavior analysis in Brazil (Keller is second from the left).
Resources
1961
Horowitz moves to the University of Kansas, where she soon is invited to preside over an emerging program in human development, laying the foundation for the most important program in applied behavior analysis in the country and, indeed, the world. 

1962

Resources
1962
Arizona State University’s psychology department begins its reign as “Fort Skinner in the Desert” under the Chairmanship of Arthur Bachrach.
Resources
1962
The Journal of Mathetics, the first journal devoted to applying behavior analysis, begins publication with Thomas Gilbert as its first Editor. An idea before its time, it survives for only two issues. 

1963

Resources
1963
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior Group, an organization of behavior analysts from the United Kingdom, holds its inaugural meeting, in London.
Resources
1963
Michael publishes Laboratory Studies in Operant Behavior, an influential laboratory manual for teaching behavior principles.

1964

Resources
1964
Division 25 of the American Psychological Association is established as the Division for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. It changes its name to the “Division for Behavior Analysis” in 2000.

1965

Applied Behavior Analysis
1965
Leonard P. Ullman and Leonard  Krasner publish Case Studies in Behavior Modification, an assemblage of behavior modification studies before the commencement of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 
Applied Behavior Analysis
1965
Ted Ayllon & Nathan Azrin publish their analysis of the Anna State Hospital (Anna, Illinois) token economy in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Resources
1965
Reese of Mount Holyoke College creates an influential series of classroom films on both basic and applied behavior analysis.
People
1965
Ulrich assumes the position of Department Chair at Western Michigan University, beginning a long and invaluable association of the Department with the discipline of behavior analysis.
People
1965
Baer is recruited to the University of Kansas by Fran Howrowitz (see 1961).
Applied Behavior Analysis
1965
Ogden Lindsley, Eric Haughton, and others develop a standard celebration chart; semi-logarithmic graph for plotting behavior change data. It remains widely used today in precision teaching and has been extended to such areas as business management and macroeconomic applications.  

1966

Experimental Analysis of Behavior
1966
In separate articles in the September issue of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior Donald Blough & D. C. Uber and Bernie Weiss describe the first use of digital computers to control experiments related to behavior analysis.
Applied Behavior Analysis
1966
Honig edits the first comprehensive (and highly influential) review of operant research: Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and Application, published by Appleton-Century-Crofts.

1967

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1967
The experimental community of Twin Oaks is founded in Louisa, Virginia by Kathleen Kincaid and based on Skinner’s "Walden Two" - http://www.twinoaks.org/

1968

People
1968
Skinner is awarded the National Medal of Science by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He is the third recipient who is a psychologist (Neal Miller received the honor in 1964 and Harry Harlow in 1967).
Resources
1968
The Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is founded with Montrose M. Wolf as its first Editor.
Resources
1968
 D. M. Baer, M. M. Wolf, & T. Risley publish “Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis” in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and give the new field definition and direction.

1970

Experimental Analysis of Behavior
1970
Richard Herrnstein publishes “On the Law of Effect,” the paper that begins the turn to quantitative analysis within the experimental analysis of behavior.
People
1970
Stolz becomes Chief of the Small Grants Section, Division of Extramural Research Programs, NIMH.
Resources
1970
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro begins to offer doctoral training in behavior analysis, which it then continues to do over the next 36 years. 

1971

Resources
1971
Skinner publishes Beyond Freedom and Dignity, which creates both controversy and discussion. The book is on the N. Y. Times best seller list for 18 weeks and Skinner makes the cover of Time.
People
1971
Michael of Western Michigan University receives the American Psychological Foundation's Distinguished Contributions to Education in Psychology award - http://jackmichael.org

1972

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1972
Day creates the journal, Behaviorism, and serves as its Editor until 1985.
Applied Behavior Analysis
1972
Watson and Tharp publish Self-Directed Behavior: Self Modification for Personal Adjustment. In 2013, the book was in its 10th edition. 

1974

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1974
Azrin and Foxx publish Toilet Training in Less Than a Day, based on behavioral   principles, and destined to be an international best seller.
Resources
1974
Midwestern Association for Behavior Analysis (MABA) is founded on the University of Chicago campus, where it holds its first conference.

1975

Resources
1975
The Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis begins publication, with Emilio Ribes as its first Editor. 

1976

Resources
1976
The Behavior Analysis Doctoral Program in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is inaugurated.

1977

Applied Behavior Analysis
1977
The Journal of Organizational Behavior Management begins publication with Aubrey C. Daniels as its first editor. 
Applied Behavior Analysis
1977
Trevor Stokes and D. M. Baer publish their article on programming generality of treatment interventions, “An implicit technology of generalization“ in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

1978

Applied Behavior Analysis
1978
Aubrey Daniels starts his company devoted to applying behavior analysis in the workplace, Aubrey Daniels & Associates - http://aubreydaniels.com
Resources
1978
The Behavior Analyst begins publication with Judith LeBlanc and Scott Wood as its first “co-chairs.” Julie Vargas becomes the first designated Editor in 1980.
People
1978
The journal Behavorists for Social Action begins publication with Joe Morrow as its Editor. In 1985 it was renamed Behavior Analysis and Social Action, and in 1990 it again changed names to Behavior and Social issues.
Resources
1978
School Applications of Learning Theory, a journal started by Robert P. Hawkins, becomes Education and Treatment of Children (ETC).
Resources
1978
First Harvard Symposium on Reinforcement Schedules as Discriminative Stimuli held in William James Hall at Harvard University. This conference was organized by Michael Commons with the assistance of James E. Mazur and John A. Nevin. It and others that followed were the foundation for the Society for the Quantitative Analysis of Behavior (SQAB), which became incorporated in 1983 as a nonprofit organization.   

1982

Resources
1982
The Analysis of Verbal Behavior begins publication, with Mark Sundberg as its Founding Editor. 
Applied Behavior Analysis
1982
B. A. Iwata, M. F. Dorsey, K. J. Slifer, K. E. Bauman, and G. S. Richman publish “Toward a functional analysis of self-injury” in Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities.  

1985

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1985
Aubrey Daniels publishes Bringing Out the Best in People, a popular translation of behavioral principles into workplace practices - http://aubreydaniels.com/bringing-out-best-people-0

1986

People
1986
Charles R. (Bob) Shuster (1930-2011) is appointed Director of the National Institute for Drug Abuse (NIDA), a position he holds until 1992. This appointment brings considerable national visibility to the contributions of behavior analysis to the understanding and treatment of drug abuse.

1991

People
1991
JBrady receives the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology from the American Psychological Association.

1993

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
1993
Walden Fellowship holds its first “planners” meeting in New York City. Mark Mattaini and Janet Twyman describe in Behavior and Social Issues “The Walden Fellowship Experiments” incorporating research and practices derived from experiences in this Walden Two – inspired program. 

1994

Resources
1994
Acta Comportamentalia begins publishing behavior-analytic research in romance languages, with Emilio Ribes Iñesta as its first Director.   
Resources
1994
The Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis establishes its Distinguished Service to Behavior Analysis Award 
Resources
1994
First Department of Behavior Analysis in US established at University of North Texas in Denton, Texas.
Resources
1994
Master’s degree program in behavior analysis established in the College of Applied Sciences, Department of Behavioral Sciences at Oslo and Akershus University, followed by a doctoral program in 2010. 

2000

Resources
2000
The European Journal of Behavior Analysis begins publication, with Eric Arntzen, Arne Brekstad, and Per Holth as its Editors.

2005

Resources
2005
Revista Brasileira de Análise do Comportamento begins publishing research in both Portuguese and English, with João Claude Todorov as its first Editor. 

2008

Applied Behavior Analysis
2008
The Association for Behavior Analysis begins publishing Behavior Analysis in Practice, with Dorothea Lerman as its first Editor.

Legend:

Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Applied Behavior Analysis

Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied Behavior Analysis

Conceptual and Cultural Issues

Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues
Conceptual and Cultural Issues

Resources

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People

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About Aubrey Daniels Institute

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Telephone: 678 904 6140
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